Least Squares and Positional Tolerance

Thursday, April 22, 2021

12:00 PM – 1:00 PM EDT

Zoom Video Webinar


Ray Hintz, PLS, PhD

University of Maine

The use of least squares is often a difficult subject in much of the surveying world because it uses math that we are not familiar with, or it is math we stared at long ago in a surveying class and worked hard to forget. We need to become comfortable with its use and learn that it can enhance our abilities in surveying. The seminar will start with real total station data and how it is simple to analyze a least squares report. Next GNSS network adjustment results will be examined. The least squares component of the 2021 ALTA/NSPS standards will next be examined as a standard most surveyors at some point need to deal with. The concepts of relative vs. absolute error ellipses and how 95% confidence is achieved will be themes throughout the discussion using the ALTA standard as an example. Suggestions for passing such standards will be presented. The seminar is very question/answer oriented.


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